475, Romulus Augustulus is proclaimed Western Roman Emperor.
1517, Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg.
1587, Leiden University Library opens its doors after its founding in 1575.
1795, John Keats, British poet (d. 1821) was born.
1822, Emperor Agustin de Iturbide attempts to dissolve the Mexican Empire.
1861, American Civil War: Citing failing health, Union General Winfield Scott resigns as Commander of the US Army.
1863, The Maori Wars resumes as British forces in New Zealand led by General Duncan Cameron begin their Invasion of the Waikato.
1864, Nevada is admitted as the 36th US state.
1876, A monster cyclone ravages India, resulting in over 200,000 deaths.
1879, Joseph Hooker, American General (b. 1814) died.
1887, Chiang Kai-shek, President of the Republic of China (d. 1975) was born. 1912, Ollie Johnston, American animator (d. 2008) was born.
1913, Dedication of the Lincoln Highway, 1st automobile road across US.
1913, The Indianapolis Street Car Strike and subsequent riot begins.
1917, WWI: Battle of Beersheba, “last successful cavalry charge in history”.
1920, Alphonse Desjardins, Quebecois journalist and credit union executive (b. 1854) died.
1923, 1st of 160 consecutive days of 100 degrees Fahrenheit at Marble Bar, Australia.
1926, Magician Harry Houdini dies of gangrene and peritonitis that developed after his appendix ruptured.
1936, Michael Landon, American actor (d. 1991) was born.
1938, New York Stock Exchange unveils a 15-point program aimed to upgrade protection for the investing public.
1940, WWII: The Battle of Britain ends, the UK prevents a possible German invasion.
1941, After 14 years of work, Mount Rushmore is completed.
1941, WWII: The destroyer USS Reuben James is torpedoed by a German U-boat near Iceland, killing more than 100 US Navy sailors.
1943, WWII: An F4U Corsair accomplishes 1st successful radar-guided interception by a USN or USMC aircraft.
1950, John Candy, Canadian comedian and actor (d. 1994) was born.
1956, Suez Crisis: The UK and France begin bombing Egypt to force the reopening of the Suez Canal.
1961, In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin’s body is removed from Lenin’s Tomb.
1963, An explosion at the Indiana State Fair Coliseum in Indianapolis kills 74 people during an ice skating show.
1968, Lyndon B. Johnson announces order of complete cessation of “all air, naval, and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam”.
1984, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassinated by 2 security guards.
1993, River Phoenix, American actor (b. 1970) died.
1998, Iraq disarmament crisis begins: Iraq announces it would no longer cooperate with United Nations weapons inspectors.
1999, Yachtsman Jesse Martin returns to Melbourne after 11 months of circumnavigating the world, solo, non-stop and unassisted.
2000, Soyuz TM-31 launches, carrying 1st resident crew to International Space Station. The ISS has been continuously crewed since.