1187, Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule.
1263, The battle of Largs is fought between Norwegians and Scots.
1452, King Richard III of England (d. 1485) was born.
1535, Jacques Cartier discovers the area where Montreal, Quebec is located.
1552, Conquest of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible.
1780, John Andre, British Army officer of the American Revolutionary War, is hanged as a spy by American forces.
1789, George Washington sends the proposed Constitutional amendments (The US Bill of Rights) to the States for ratification.
1800, Nat Turner, American slave and slave rebellion figure (d. 1831) was born.
1803, Samuel Adams, American revolutionary leader (b. 1722) died.
1814, Spanish Royalists troops defeated rebel Chilean forces of Bernardo O’Higgins and Jose Miguel Carrera.
1835, The Texas Revolution begins with the Battle of Gonzales. 1847, Paul von Hindenburg, German officer and politician (d. 1934) was born.
1864, American Civil War: Battle of Saltville, Union forces attack Saltville, Virginia, but are defeated by Confederate troops.
1869, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Indian independence movement figure (d. 1948) was born.
1889, In Colorado, Nicholas Creede strikes it rich in silver during the last great silver boom of the American Old West.
1890, Groucho Marx, American comedian and actor (d. 1977) was born.
1904, Graham Greene, British novelist (d. 1991) was born.
1919, US President Woodrow Wilson suffers a massive stroke, leaving him partially paralyzed.
1924, The Geneva Protocol is adopted as a means to strengthen the League of Nations.
1925, John Logie Baird performs 1st test of a working television system.
1928, George “Spanky” McFarland, American actor (d. 1993) was born.
1928, The “Prelature of the Holy Cross and the Work of God”, commonly known as Opus Dei, is founded by Saint Josemaria Escriva.
1937, Dominican Republic strongman Rafael Trujillo orders execution of Haitians living within borderlands; 20,000 are killed.
1937, Johnnie L. Cochran Jr., American attorney (d. 2005) was born.
1941, WWII: In Operation Typhoon, Germany begins an all-out offensive against Moscow.
1944, WWII: German troops end the Warsaw Uprising.
1950, Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz is 1st published
1958, Guinea declares its independence from France.
1959, The anthology series The Twilight Zone premieres on CBS television.
1967, Thurgood Marshall is sworn in as 1st African-American justice of US Supreme Court.
1968, A peaceful student demonstration in Mexico City culminates in the Tlatelolco massacre.
1968, Marcel Duchamp, French artist (b. 1887) died.
1970, plane carrying Wichita State University football team, administrators, and supporters crashes in Colorado killing 31 people.
1985, Rock Hudson, American actor (b. 1925) died.
1998, Gene Autry, American singer, actor, and entrepreneur (b. 1907) died.
2002, The Beltway sniper attacks begin, extending over three weeks.