97, Emperor Nerva is forced by the Praetorian Guard to adopt general Marcus Ulpius Trajanus as his heir and successor.
306, Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor.
312, Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius, becoming the sole Roman emperor.
456, The Visigoths brutally sack the Suebi’s capital of Braga (Portugal), churches are burnt to the ground.
1061, Empress Agnes, acting as regent for her son, brings about the election of bishop Cadalus, the antipope Honorius II.
1538, 1st university in the New World, the Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino, is established.
1628, The Siege of La Rochelle, which had lasted for 14 months, ends with the surrender of the Huguenots.
1636, A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony establishes 1st college in what would become the US, today known as Harvard University.
1664, The Duke of York and Albany’s Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, is established.
1704, John Locke, English philosopher (b. 1632) died.
1775, American Revolutionary War: A British proclamation forbids residents from leaving Boston. 1776, Battle of White Plains, British Army forces arrive at White Plains, attack and capture Chatterton Hill from the Americans.
1793, Eliphalet Remington, American firearms manufacturer (d. 1861) was born.
1818, Abigail Adams, First Lady of the United States (b. 1744) died.
1835, The United Tribes of New Zealand is established with the signature of the Declaration of Independence.
1848, 1st railroad in Spain, between Barcelona and Mataro, is opened.
1864, 2nd Battle of Fair Oaks ends, Union forces withdraw after failing to breach the Confederate defenses around Richmond, VA.
1886, In New York Harbor, President Grover Cleveland dedicates the Statue of Liberty.
1893, Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 6 in B Minor, Pathetique, premieres in St. Petersburg, 9 days before his death.
1914, Jonas Salk, American biologist and physician (d. 1995) was born.
1915, Richard Strauss conducts 1st performance of his tone poem Eine Alpensinfonie in Berlin.
1918, A new Polish government in Western Galicia is established.
1918, WWI: Czechoslovakia is granted independence from Austria-Hungary marking the beginning of an independent Czechoslovak state, after 300 years.
1919, US Congress passes Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson’s veto, paving way for Prohibition to begin following January.
1922, March on Rome: Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini march on Rome and take over the Italian government.
1929, Black Monday, a day in the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which also saw major stock market upheaval.
1940, WWII: Greece rejects Italy’s ultimatum. Italy invades Greece through Albania, marking Greece’s entry into WWII.
1942, The Alaska Highway (Alcan Highway) is completed through Canada to Fairbanks, Alaska.
1948, Swiss chemist Paul Muller is awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT.
1958, John XXIII, is elected Pope.
1962, Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev announces he had ordered removal of Soviet missile bases in Cuba
1964, Vietnam War: US officials deny any involvement in bombing North Vietnam.
1965, Construction on the St. Louis Arch is completed.
1971, Britain launches the satellite Prospero into low Earth orbit atop a Black Arrow carrier rocket.
1990, The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic holds 1st multiparty legislature election in the country’s history.
2005, Lewis Libby, VP Dick Cheney’s chief of staff, is indicted in the Valerie Plame case. Libby resigns later that day.