312, Constantine the Great is said to have received his famous Vision of the Cross.
710, Saracen invasion of Sardinia.
939, Edmund I succeeds Athelstan as King of England.
1275, Traditional founding of the city of Amsterdam.
1524, Italian Wars: The French troops lay siege to Pavia.
1553, Condemned as a heretic, Michael Servetus is burned at the stake just outside Geneva.
1644, Second Battle of Newbury in the English Civil War.
1682, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded.
1728, James Cook, British naval captain and explorer (d. 1779) was born.
1795, The US and Spain sign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the US
1806, The French Army enters Berlin. 1810, US annexes the former Spanish colony of West Florida.
1811, Isaac Singer, American inventor (d. 1875) was born.
1827, Bellini’s third opera Il pirata is premiered at Teatro alla Scala di Milano
1838, Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state or be exterminated.
1858, Theodore Roosevelt, American politician, 33rd Governor of NY, 25th US VP, 26th US President (d. 1919) was born.
1904, 1st underground New York City Subway line opens; the system becomes the biggest in US, and one of the biggest in world.
1922, A referendum in Rhodesia rejects the country’s annexation to the South African Union.
1923, Roy Lichtenstein, American artist (d. 1997) was born.
1924, The Uzbek SSR is founded in the Soviet Union.
1925, Warren Christopher, American diplomat and 63rd United States Secretary of State (d. 2011) was born.
1932, Sylvia Plath, American poet (d. 1963) was born.
1936, Mrs Wallis Simpson files for divorce which would eventually allow her to marry King Edward VIII of the UK.
1940, John Gotti, American crime boss (d. 2002) was born.
1944, WWII: German forces capture Banska Bystrica during Slovak National Uprising thus bringing it to an end.
1953, British nuclear test Totem 2 is carried out at Emu Field, South Australia.
1954, Benjamin O. Davis Jr. becomes 1st African-American general in the US Air Force.
1961, Mauritania and Mongolia join the United Nations.
1961, NASA launches 1st Saturn I rocket in Mission Saturn-Apollo 1.
1962, A plane carrying Enrico Mattei, post-war Italian administrator, crashes in mysterious circumstances.
1967, Catholic priest Philip Berrigan and others of Baltimore 4 protest Vietnam War by pouring blood on Selective Service records.
1971, The Democratic Republic of the Congo is renamed Zaire.
1988, Ronald Reagan decides to tear down new US Embassy in Moscow because of Soviet listening devices in the building structure.
1995, Former Prime Minister of Italy Bettino Craxi is convicted in absentia of corruption.
2003, Rod Roddy, American television announcer (b. 1937) died.
2004, Boston Red Sox complete 4-game sweep of World Series against St. Louis Cardinals, 1st World Series championship since 1918.