473, Emperor Leo I acclaims his grandson Leo II as Caesar of the Byzantine Empire.
1147, Seljuk Turks completely annihilate German crusaders under Conrad III at the Battle of Dorylaeum.
1147, The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a four-month siege.
1400, Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet died.
1415, The army of Henry V of England defeats the French at the Battle of Agincourt.
1747, British fleet under Admiral Sir Edward Hawke defeats the French at the second battle of Cape Finisterre.
1760, George III becomes King of Great Britain.
1812, War of 1812: The American frigate, USS US, commanded by Stephen Decatur, captures the British frigate HMS Macedonian.
1825, Johann Strauss II, Austrian composer (d. 1899) was born.
1828, The St Katharine Docks opened in London.
1854, The Battle of Balaklava during the Crimean War (Charge of the Light Brigade). 1861, The Toronto Stock Exchange is created.
1864, John Francis Dodge, American automobile pioneer (d. 1920) was born.
1881, Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter and sculptor (d. 1973) was born.
1888, Richard E. Byrd, American explorer (d. 1957) was born.
1900, The UK annexes the Transvaal.
1912, Minnie Pearl, American comedian and singer (d. 1996) was born.
1917, Traditionally understood date of the October Revolution, involving the capture of the Winter Palace, Petrograd, Russia.
1920, After 74 days on Hunger Strike in Brixton Prison, England, the Sinn Fein Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney died.
1921, Bat Masterson, American journalist and lawman (b. 1853) died.
1924, The forged Zinoviev Letter is published in the Daily Mail, wrecking the British Labour Party’s hopes of re-election.
1940, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. is named 1st African American general in the US Army.
1944, Heinrich Himmler orders a crackdown on the Edelweiss Pirates, a loosely organized youth culture in Nazi Germany.
1944, The Romanian Army liberates Carei, the last Romanian city under Axis Powers occupation.
1944, The USS Tang under Richard O’Kane is sunk by the ship’s own malfunctioning torpedo.
1945, The Republic of China takes over administration of Taiwan following Japan’s surrender to the Allies.
1962, Cuban missile crisis: Adlai Stevenson shows photos at the UN proving Soviet missiles are installed in Cuba.
1962, Nelson Mandela is sentenced to five years in prison.
1962, Uganda joins the United Nations.
1977, Digital Equipment Corporation releases OpenVMS V1.0.
1980, Proceedings on the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction conclude at The Hague.
1993, Vincent Price, American actor (b. 1911) died.
1995, A commuter train slams into a school bus in Fox River Grove, Illinois, killing seven students.
1999, Payne Stewart, American golfer (b. 1957) died.
2002, Richard Harris, Irish actor (b. 1930) died.
2004, Fidel Castro, Cuba’s President, announces that transactions using the American Dollar will be banned.