425, Valentinian III is elevated as Roman Emperor, at the age of 6.
1295, 1st treaty forming the Auld Alliance between Scotland and France against England is signed in Paris.
1641, Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641.
1642, Battle of Edgehill: 1st major battle of 1st English Civil War.
1694, British/American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phipps, fail to seize Quebec from the French.
1707, 1st Parliament of Great Britain meets.
1739, War of Jenkins’ Ear starts: British Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, reluctantly declares war on Spain.
1835, Adlai Stevenson I, American politician, and 23rd Vice President of the United States (d. 1914) was born.
1850, 1st National Women’s Rights Convention begins in Worcester, Massachusetts, US.
1867, 72 Senators are summoned by Royal Proclamation to serve as 1st members of the Canadian Senate. 1869, John Heisman, American football player and coach (d. 1936) was born.
1870, Franco-Prussian War: the Siege of Metz concludes with a decisive Prussian victory.
1893, Gummo Marx, American actor (d. 1977) was born.
1906, Alberto Santos-Dumont flies an airplane in 1st heavier-than-air flight in Europe at Champs de Bagatelle, Paris, France.
1915, Woman’s suffrage: In New York City, 25,000-33,000 women march on Fifth Avenue to advocate their right to vote.
1917, Lenin calls for the October Revolution.
1925, Johnny Carson, American television host (d. 2005) was born.
1929, 1st North American transcontinental air service begins between New York City and Los Angeles, California.
1935, Dutch Schultz, Abe Landau, Otto Berman, and Bernard “Lulu” Rosencrantz are fatally shot at a saloon in Newark, NJ.
1941, WWII: Field Marshal Georgy Zhukov takes command of Red Army to prevent further advance of German forces into Russia.
1942, Anita Roddick, founder of The Body Shop (d. 2007) was born.
1942, Michael Crichton, American writer (d. 2008) was born.
1942, WWII: The Battle for Henderson Field begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign and ends on October 26.
1944, WWII: Battle of Leyte Gulf, The largest naval battle in history begins in the Philippines.
1944, WWII: The Soviet Red Army enters Hungary.
1946, The United Nations General Assembly convenes for 1st time, at an auditorium in Flushing, Queens, New York City.
1950, Al Jolson, American singer and actor (b. 1886) died.
1957, Christian Dior, French fashion designer (b. 1905) died.
1970, Gary Gabelich sets a land speed record in a rocket-powered automobile called the Blue Flame, fueled with natural gas.
1973, A United Nations sanctioned cease-fire officially ends the Yom Kippur War between Israel and Syria.
1973, The Watergate Scandal: US Pres Richard M. Nixon agrees to turn over subpoenaed audio tapes of his Oval Office conversations.
1978, Maybelle Carter, American guitarist and musical innovator (b. 1909) died.
1984, James Petrillo, leader of the U.S. musicians union (b. 1892) died.
1989, Phillips Disaster in Pasadena, Texas kills 23 and injures 314.
1992, Emperor Akihito becomes 1st Emperor of Japan to stand on Chinese soil.
2001, Apple announces the iPod.