320, Pappus of Alexandria, Greek philosopher, observes an eclipse of the sun and writes a commentary on The Great Astronomer.
1016, The Danes defeat the Saxons in the Battle of Ashingdon.
1081, The Normans defeat the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Dyrrhachium.
1210, Pope Innocent III excommunicates German leader Otto IV.
1356, Basel earthquake, most significant historic seismological event north of the Alps, destroys the town of Basel, Switzerland.
1386, Opening of the University of Heidelberg.
1540, Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto’s forces destroy fortified town of Mabila in present-day Alabama, killing Tuskaloosa.
1648, Boston Shoemakers form 1st US labor organization.
1744, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, close friend of Queen Anne of Great Britain (b. 1660) died.
1748, Signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession.
1775, African-American poet Phillis Wheatley freed from slavery. 1775, The Burning of Falmouth (now Portland, Maine) prompts the Continental Congress to establish the Continental Navy.
1779, American Revolutionary War: The Franco-American Siege of Savannah is lifted.
1797, Treaty of Campo Formio is signed between France and Austria
1851, Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick is 1st published as The Whale by Richard Bentley of London.
1867, US takes possession of Alaska after purchasing it from Russia for $7.2 million. Happy Alaska Day!
1871, Charles Babbage, English mathematician and inventor (b. 1791) died.
1898, US takes possession of Puerto Rico.
1912, 1st Balkan War: Peter I of Serbia issues a declaration “To the Serbian People”, as Serbia joins the war.
1914, The Schoenstatt Movement is founded in Germany.
1919, Pierre Elliott Trudeau, Canadian politician (d. 2000) was born.
1921, Jesse Helms, American politician (d. 2008) was born.
1921, The Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is formed as part of the RSFSR.
1922, British Broadcasting Company (later Corporation) is founded by a consortium, to establish a national broadcasting service.
1927, George C. Scott, American actor (d. 1999) was born.
1931, Thomas Edison, American inventor (b. 1847) died.
1935, Peter Boyle, American actor (d. 2006) was born.
1939, Lee Harvey Oswald, American alleged assassin of John F. Kennedy (d. 1963) was born.
1944, Soviet Union begins liberation of Czechoslovakia.
1945, Argentine military officer and politician Juan Peron marries actress Eva Peron.
1945, The USSR’s nuclear program receives plans for the US plutonium bomb from Klaus Fuchs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
1954, Texas Instruments announces 1st Transistor radio.
1966, Elizabeth Arden, Canadian businesswoman (b. 1878) died.
1967, The Soviet probe Venera 4 reaches Venus and becomes 1st spacecraft to measure the atmosphere of another planet.
1968, US Olympic Committee suspends Tommie Smith and John Carlos for giving a “black power” salute at the Mexico City games.
1982, Bess Truman, First Lady of the United States (b. 1885) died.