70 BC, Virgil, Roman poet (d. 19 BC) was born.
1582, Pope Gregory XIII implements Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, Oct 4 is followed by Oct 15.
1783, The Montgolfier brothers’ hot air balloon marks 1st human ascent, by Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier, (tethered balloon).
1793, Queen Marie-Antoinette of France is tried and convicted in a swift, pre-determined trial in the Palais de Justice, Paris.
1815, Napoleon I of France begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.
1844, Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher (d. 1900) was born.
1863, The H. L. Hunley, 1st submarine to sink a ship, sinks during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.
1864, Battle of Glasgow is fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri, and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.
1878, The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation.
1880, Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.
1888, The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper is received by investigators. 1894, The Dreyfus affair: Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for spying.
1904, The Russian Baltic Fleet leaves Reval, Estonia for Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War.
1908, John Kenneth Galbraith, Canadian-born US economist (d. 2006) was born.
1910, Airship America launched from New Jersey in 1st attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft.
1917, Mata Hari, Dutch dancer and spy (b. 1876) died.
1920, Mario Puzo, American novelist (d. 1999) was born.
1926, Michel Foucault, French philosopher (d. 1984) was born.
1928, The airship, Graf Zeppelin completes its 1st trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, US.
1930, Herbert Henry Dow, American chemical industrialist (b. 1866) died.
1932, Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its 1st flight.
1939, The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed La Guardia Airport) is dedicated.
1944, The Arrow Cross Party (very similar to Hitler’s NSDAP (Nazi party)) takes power in Hungary.
1945, WWII: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval is shot by a firing squad for treason.
1946, Hermann Goring, German Nazi official (b. 1893) died.
1953, British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.
1956, Fortran, 1st modern computer language, is shared with the coding community for 1st time.
1964, Cole Porter, American composer (b. 1891) died.
1966, Black Panther Party is created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.
1969, Moratorium to End War in Vietnam is held in Washington DC and across the US.
1970, Thirty-five construction workers are killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapses.
1971, The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia.
1987, The Great Storm of 1987 hits France and England.
1989, Wayne Gretzky becomes the all-time leading points scorer in the NHL.
2001, NASA’s Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter’s moon Io.
2003, China launches Shenzhou 5, its 1st manned space mission.