1138, A massive earthquake strikes Aleppo, Syria.
1531, Huldrych Zwingli is killed in battle with the Roman Catholic cantons of Switzerland.
1582, Because of implementation of Gregorian calendar, this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.
1614, Adriaen Block and 12 Amsterdam merchants petition States General for exclusive trading rights in the New Netherland colony.
1649, After a 10-day siege, English New Model Army troops stormed town of Wexford.
1727, George II and Caroline of Ansbach are crowned King and Queen of Great Britain.
1739, Grigory Potemkin, Russian military leader and statesman (d. 1791) was born.
1767, Surveying for the MasonaE”Dixon Line separating Maryland from Pennsylvania is completed.
1809, Along Natchez Trace in TN, explorer Meriwether Lewis dies under mysterious circumstances at an inn called Grinder’s Stand.
1811, Inventor John Stevens’ boat, the Juliana, begins operation as 1st steam-powered ferry (service between NYC and Hoboken, NJ). 1821, George Williams, English founder of the YMCA (d. 1905) was born.
1844, Henry Heinz, American food manufacturer (d. 1916) was born.
1852, The University of Sydney, Australia’s oldest university, is inaugurated in Sydney.
1862, after Battle of Antietam, Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart and his men loot Chambersburg, PA, during a raid into the north.
1864, Campina Grande, Brazil is established as a city.
1884, Eleanor Roosevelt, First Lady of the United States and humanitarian (d. 1962) was born.
1890, In Washington, DC, the Daughters of the American Revolution is founded.
1899, Second Boer War begins: In South Africa, a war between the UK and the Boers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State erupts.
1899, The Western League is renamed the American League.
1910, Former President Theodore Roosevelt becomes 1st US president to fly in an airplane.
1912, 1st Balkan War: The Greek Army liberates the city of Kozani.
1929, JC Penney opens store #1252 in Milford, Delaware, making it a nationwide company with stores in all 48 US states.
1935, Dan Evins, American businessman, founded Cracker Barrel Old Country Store (d. 2012) was born.
1950, CBS’s mechanical color system is 1st to be licensed for broadcast by the US Federal Communications Commission.
1954, 1st Indochina War: The Viet Minh take control of North Vietnam.
1957, Space Race: M.I.T. scientists calculate Sputnik I’s booster rocket’s orbit.
1958, Pioneer program: NASA launches the lunar probe Pioneer 1 (the probe falls back to Earth and burns up).
1961, Chico Marx, American comedian (b. 1887) died.
1962, Second Vatican Council: Pope John XXIII convenes 1st ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church in 92 years.
1963, Jean Cocteau, French writer (b. 1889) died.
1965, Dorothea Lange, American photographer (b. 1895) died.
1968, NASA launches Apollo 7, 1st successful manned Apollo mission.
1975, Saturday Night Live debuts with George Carlin as the host and Andy Kaufman, Janis Ian and Billy Preston as guests.
1982, The Mary Rose, a Tudor carrack which sank on July 19, 1545, is salvaged from the sea bed of the Solent, off Portsmouth.
1991, Redd Foxx, American comedian and actor (b. 1922) died.